Criminal Justice Statistics
The Division of Criminal Justice Services maintains, analyzes and publishes criminal and youth justice system data, including incidents of crime and arrests and dispositions. Police departments, sheriffs’ offices, probation departments and the state Office of Court Administration report these data, which provide the public and policy makers with information detailing how the criminal justice system is operating in their communities. Data are presented as follows:
- Statewide: All 62 counties
- Regions: New York City (the five boroughs of Bronx, Kings, New York, Queens and Richmond) and Non-New York City (57 counties outside of the five boroughs)
- County: Each borough or county
All data that follow are updated annually except where noted and additional data are available through New York State’s Open Data portal where noted.
DCJS also publishes Criminal Justice Case Processing Reports, which contain information about misdemeanor and felony arrests and the processing of felony cases in New York State’s superior courts. These reports detail indictment and superior court information counts and outcomes of those actions, including prison sentences for cases resulting in convictions. The agency posts these reports online quarterly and annually.
In addition, the Office of Court Administration maintains and publishes criminal justice system data, including information about felony, misdemeanor and violation-level charges
Criminal justice professionals or researchers with questions or seeking additional information should contact email@example.com.
Media inquiries should be directed to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Reported Crime and Victimization
New York State and the FBI use seven Index crime categories as indicators of overall crime trends: murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault, which are classified as violent crimes; and the property crimes of burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft. The FBI created these categories to allow for uniform crime reporting across all 50 states.
Police departments and sheriffs’ offices report these data to the state.
Statewide and regional data are presented for the most recent 10 years. Index crimes by county and agency and crime rates by county are presented for the most recent five years. DCJS posts preliminary data in the spring and final data in the fall.
- Index Crimes for New York State, New York City and non-New York City (6/2022)
- Index Crimes by County and Agency (6/2022)
- Crime Rates by County (6/2022)
The overall crime rate of a county is calculated by dividing the total number of Index crimes submitted by police agencies in each county by the county’s population and multiplying the result by 100,000. The U.S. Census Bureau is the source of county population data. The same formula is used to calculate the violent crime rate and property crime rate for each county.
Index crime by police agency and crime rate data for each county back to 1990 are available through the Open Data Portal.
Note: New York State implemented the FBI’s expanded definition of rape in 2015; this resulted in an uptick in violent crime and reported rapes in that year when compared to prior years. As a result, caution should be used when citing or interpreting any percentage changes between rapes reported in 2015 and any subsequent year, to those reported in 2014 and earlier.
DCJS is required to annually publish a report analyzing reported crime. Crime in New York State reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.
Hate crimes target individuals, groups of individuals or property based on a perception or belief about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion or other characteristic as defined by state law.
Police agencies determine whether a crime that occurred in their jurisdiction is classified as a hate crime and report those incidents to the state. Hate crime incidents reported to police are presented for the most recent five years.
DCJS is required to annually publish a report analyzing hate crime incidents, arrests and convictions. Hate Crime in New York State reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.
Historical hate crime incidents back to 2010 are available through the Open Data Portal.
Police agencies in New York State collect data on the number of individuals victimized during domestic incidents involving members of the same family, including but not limited to parents, children and siblings, and intimate partners. These individuals may or may not live together at the time of the incident.
Police agencies in counties outside New York City report these data for the following offense categories: aggravated assault, simple assault, sex offenses, and violation of protective orders. The New York City Police Department reports these data for the following offense categories: felony assault, third-degree assault and related offenses, and violation of protective orders.
Data are presented for the most recent 10 years.
New York State annually publishes a Domestic Homicide Report analyzing homicides involving family members and intimate partners. Those reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.
New York State provides funding, training and technical support to 20 police agencies and their law enforcement partners in 17 counties through the Gun Involved Violence Elimination (GIVE) initiative, which aims to reduce shootings and save lives in communities with high rates of violent and firearm-related crime.
These police departments participate in GIVE: Albany, Binghamton, Buffalo, Hempstead, Jamestown, Kingston, Middletown, Mt. Vernon, Nassau County, Niagara Falls, Newburgh, Poughkeepsie, Rochester, Schenectady, Spring Valley, Suffolk County, Syracuse, Troy, Utica, and Yonkers. The following data are reported by these agencies:
Adult Criminal Justice System
This section provides data detailing processing of cases involving individuals who are 18 and older.
Police departments report arrests to DCJS that require fingerprints, the criteria for which is defined in state law. Arrests are reported to the state by the police department that made the arrest.
Ten years of data detailing misdemeanor and felony arrests involving adults, who are individuals 18 and older. Felony arrests are categorized as follows: drug, violent, DWI, and other. Misdemeanor arrests are categorized as follows: drug, property, DWI, and other.
- Adult Arrests by County and Region (4/2022)
- Adult Arrests by Age, Race/Ethnicity and Sex by County and Region (4/2022)
Note: The age reported is the age when the crime is alleged to have occurred.
Historical adult arrest data back to 1990 are available through the Open Data Portal.
State law requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) and the Office of Court Administration (OCA) to provide information to the public that details pretrial release decisions made by judges upon arraignment, including release on recognizance, bail, or non-monetary conditions, as well as remand to custody.
DCJS and OCA coordinated and compiled one comprehensive data file to meet the statutory reporting obligations because neither agency maintains all the data necessary to fulfill the requirements under the bail reform law. Data within the file include the sex, race, and ethnicity of the individual arrested; the most serious arrest charge; the number and type of charges the individual has faced previously; and if the individual failed to appear in court or was re-arrested while the case was pending, among other data. The information provided does not identify the individuals charged.
- Pretrial Release Data (July 2022)
This file contains data from Jan. 1, 2020, through Dec. 31, 2021, as reported by New York City criminal courts (excluding community courts), 61 city and two district courts outside of New York City, and certain Superior Courts, which started reporting data in 2021.
DCJS and OCA also coordinated and compiled data detailing cases arraigned in 2019, prior to the bail law changes, as well as cases arraigned in 2020 and 2021.
- Supplemental Pretrial Release Data File (September 2022) – This file contains arraignments resulting from arrests requiring fingerprints from Jan. 1, 2019, through Dec. 31, 2021.
- Supplemental Pretrial Release Data File Source Notes (September 2022)
- Supplemental Pretrial Release Data Dictionary (September 2022)
- Supplemental Pretrial Release Summary Tables (September 2022)
DCJS and John Jay College also hosted a webinar to provide an overview of the supplemental pretrial release data (September 2022).
Five years of data detailing the court dispositions (outcomes) of misdemeanor and felony arrests of individuals 18 and older. Arrests are reported by the police agency that made the arrest and disposition information is provided by the state Office of Court Administration.
Data comparing arrests and sentences to prison by race/ethnicity as compared to the race/ethnicity of the total population in New York State, New York City, Non-New York City, and each county. These data are presented to provide context to the race/ethnicity of adults involved in the criminal justice system.
State law allows individuals who have remained crime-free for 10 years to request that certain New York State convictions be sealed. These data show the number of individuals who successfully petitioned the courts to seal a case(s), by the county in which the seal was granted.
Note: The county where the seal was granted may be different than the county in which an individual lived at the time of the conviction or the county where the individual presently resides.
Eligible individuals may petition the court to seal up to two misdemeanor convictions; one misdemeanor and one felony conviction; or one felony conviction. This process took effect Oct. 7, 2017.
State law requires adults convicted of certain crimes to register as sex offenders. Registration occurs upon an individual’s release to the community. The number of adults required to register are shown by risk level, county of residence and other categories. These data are updated monthly.
State law sets three risk levels, which are determined by a judge after a court hearing: Level 1 (low risk of repeat offense), Level 2 (moderate risk of repeat offense) and Level 3 (high risk of repeat offense). A designation of P (pending) means that a judge has not yet determined risk level. Any questions about these data should be directed to email@example.com.
A sentence to probation allows individuals convicted of crimes to remain in the community under conditions mandated by the court and monitored by probation departments in 57 counties and New York City. Judges also may impose a split sentence, which is a term of local jail incarceration followed by probation supervision. New York State regulates and funds Probation Departments, however, supervision of individuals is a local responsibility.
Adults Under Probation Supervision by County (5/2021).
Adults under supervision are shown annually for the past five years and by conviction type, sex, and race/ethnicity for the most current year. See data notes for more information.
- Adults Under Supervision Annually for the Last Five years
- Adults Under Supervision by Conviction Type
- Adults Under Supervision by Sex
- Adults Under Supervision by Race/Ethnicity
New York State annually publishes a Probation Population Report analyzing data and trends, including crimes of conviction and outcomes. Those reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.
This recidivism report details arrest, conviction and incarceration data for adults sentenced to probation supervision for New York State, New York City, Non-New York City and each county. Data are shown for the last 10 years. See data notes for methodology used to calculate recidivism.
New York City and each county operate local jails, which house individuals sentenced to no more than one year of incarceration, those awaiting transfer to state prison to serve a sentence and those whose court cases are pending.
State prison population data are available from the State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision.
Data detailing average daily population by facility for the most recent 12 months are updated monthly.
- Monthly Jail Population (12/2022)
Data detailing average of all daily populations reported for each year by facility for the most recent 10 years are updated annually.
- Annual Jail Population (2/2022)
Historical jail population data back to 1997 are available through the Open Data Portal.
Youth Justice System
This section provides data detailing processing of cases involving individuals who are 7 through 17 years old. This youth justice system flow chart illustrates key points in case processing. The state Office of Children and Family Services updates youth detention data and youth placement data each quarter and also produces an annual Youth in Care Report.
Statewide, regional and county population data by sex and race/ethnicity for youth ranging in age from 7 to 17. These data are presented to provide context to the race/ethnicity, sex and age of youth involved in the youth justice system.
Five years of data detailing police contact with individuals younger than 18, either formal arrests or police contact with youth where there is probable cause that a crime was committed but the agency did not file formal charges.
Arrests and criminal activity are shown by the following categories as defined by the FBI:
Index (murder, robbery, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft) and Non-Index (all other offenses, including but not limited to arson, weapons possession, criminal mischief and simple assault).
- Arrests/Criminal Activity by County (5/2022)
Note: The New York City Police Department does not report these data.
Youth Part of Criminal Court processes felony arrests involving 16- or 17-year-olds, defined in state law as adolescent offenders, and arrests involving 13-, 14- and 15-year-olds facing certain serious felony crimes, defined in state law as juvenile offenders.
These cases may remain in Youth Part or be transferred to, also referred to as removed to, Probation and/or Family Court.
Juvenile Delinquent Probation Intakes
Probation departments are responsible for screening juvenile delinquency (JD) arrests involving youth who are 7 through 17 to determine whether a petition should be filed in Family Court, or whether the case can be diverted. These arrests include 16- and 17-year-olds who are charged with felonies and have their cases removed from the Youth Part of Criminal Court to Probation Intake.
These data are presented by region and county:
- Juvenile Delinquent Probation Intakes Opened by Race/Ethnicity, Sex and Age (4/2022)
- Juvenile Delinquent Probation Intakes Closed by Race/Ethnicity (4/2022)
Probation departments may supervise youth who were younger than 18 at the time of offense after their cases are disposed in Family Court or the Youth Part of Criminal Court.
These data are presented by region and county:
Family Courts handle cases involving youth who are 7 through 17 and have a juvenile delinquency petition filed after a referral from a county attorney’s office; this includes cases involving 16- and 17-year-olds charged with felonies who were removed from Youth Part of Criminal Court to Family Court.
These data are presented by region and county:
This section presents the number of juvenile delinquency cases handled by probation departments and Family Courts for the most recent five-year period. Data are shown for the following case processing points: detention admissions, probation intake and adjustment, initial petitions filed in Family Court, probation supervision cases opened, and cases under probation supervision at the end of each year. These data are presented by county and region:
This section presents juvenile justice data compiled prior to full implementation of the state law that raised the age of criminal responsibility to 18 over a two-year period. Among other changes implemented as a result of the law:
- 16- and 17-year-olds are no longer fingerprinted when arrested for misdemeanor crimes. As a result, these arrests are no longer reported by police agencies to the state (effective Oct. 1, 2018, for 16-year-olds and Oct. 1, 2019, for 17-year-olds).
- 16- and 17-year-olds arrested for felonies, known as adolescent offenders, are initially processed in the Youth Part of Criminal Court. Cases either remain in the Youth Part or are transferred to Probation Departments and/or Family Courts.
Ten years of misdemeanor and felony arrest counts for 16- and 17-year-olds and juvenile offenders, who are 13-, 14- and 15-year-olds charged with serious, violent felonies for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county:
Five years of criminal court dispositions of misdemeanor and felony arrests for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county.
Data for the 24-month implementation period of the Raise the Age law: Oct. 1, 2018 through Sept. 30, 2020. These data were compiled quarterly to monitor activity in the Youth Part of Criminal Court, newly created by the law.
Adolescent Offender (AO) and Juvenile Offender (JO) Arrests and Youth Part Processing
As New York State explored reforms to its juvenile justice system prior to the enactment of the Raise the Age law, staff from the Division of Criminal Justice Services partnered with local and state agencies to compile and analyze juvenile justice data. This allowed policy makers and stakeholders to use the data to inform policy development.
These profiles detail juvenile justice case processing for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county for the five-year period prior to Raise the Age implementation.
County/Regional Profiles are no longer compiled, as data collection, analysis and publication have been modified and updated to reflect the current structure of the state’s youth justice system.
The number of sworn and civilian employees on each police agency's payroll, and those employees by sex, race and ethnicity, annually as of Oct. 31. These data are reported by each agency and excludes employees working in local correctional facilities.
Historical police personnel data dating back to 2007 are available through the Open Data Portal.
State law requires police departments and sheriffs' offices to report incidents involving use of force to the state, which must make incident-level information by agency available to the public.
- Case Level Incidents by Agency: November 2020 through December 2021 (11/2022)
- Data Source Notes (11/2022)
- Summary Use of Force Data Tables: November 2020 through December 2021 (11/2022)
Note: Use of Force data from July 1, 2019, through Oct. 31, 2020, is posted on the Publications / Reports page