Division of Criminal Justice Services

Criminal Justice Statistics

The Division of Criminal Justice Services maintains, analyzes and publishes criminal and youth justice system data, including incidents of crime and arrests and dispositions. Police departments, sheriffs’ offices, probation departments and the state Office of Court Administration report these data, which provide the public and policy makers with information detailing how the criminal justice system is operating in their communities. Data are presented as follows:

  • Statewide: All 62 counties
  • Regions: New York City (the five boroughs of Bronx, Kings, New York, Queens and Richmond) and Non-New York City (57 counties outside of the five boroughs)
  • County: Each borough or county

All data that follow are updated annually except where noted and additional data are available through New York State’s Open Data portal where noted.

DCJS also publishes Criminal Justice Case Processing Reports, which contain information about misdemeanor and felony arrests and the processing of felony cases in New York State’s superior courts. These reports detail indictment and superior court information counts and outcomes of those actions, including prison sentences for cases resulting in convictions. The agency posts these reports online quarterly and annually.

In addition, the Office of Court Administration maintains and publishes criminal justice system data, including information about felony, misdemeanor and violation-level charges

Criminal justice professionals or researchers with questions or seeking additional information should contact dcjsstats@dcjs.ny.gov.

Media inquiries should be directed to pressinfo@dcjs.ny.gov.

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Reported Crime and Victimization

Index Crime

New York State and the FBI use seven Index crime categories as indicators of overall crime trends: murder, rape, robbery and aggravated assault, which are classified as violent crimes; and the property crimes of burglary, larceny and motor vehicle theft. The FBI created these categories to allow for uniform crime reporting across all 50 states.

Police departments and sheriffs’ offices report these data to the state.

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Index Crime by County and Region
Full-Year Historical Data, Back to 2000


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Index Crime by Reporting Agency
Current Partial-Year Data, Year-to-Date
Full-Year Historical Data, Back to 2010

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Violent Crime and Violent Crime by Firearm by County and by Agency
Full-Year Historical Data, Back to 2015


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Index crime by police agency and crime rate data for each county back to 1990 are available through the Open Data Portal.

DCJS is required to annually publish a report analyzing reported crime. Crime in New York State reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.

Hate Crime

Hate crimes target individuals, groups of individuals or property based on a perception or belief about race, ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, religion or other characteristic as defined by state law.

Police agencies determine whether a crime that occurred in their jurisdiction is classified as a hate crime and report those incidents to the state. Hate crime incidents reported to police are presented for the most recent five years.

DCJS is required to annually publish a report analyzing hate crime incidents, arrests and convictions. Hate Crime in New York State reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.

Historical hate crime incidents back to 2010 are available through the Open Data Portal.

Domestic Violence

Police agencies in New York State collect data on the number of individuals victimized during domestic incidents involving members of the same family, including but not limited to parents, children and siblings, and intimate partners. These individuals may or may not live together at the time of the incident.

Police agencies in counties outside New York City report these data for the following offense categories: aggravated assault, simple assault, sex offenses, and violation of protective orders. The New York City Police Department reports these data for the following offense categories: felony assault, third-degree assault and related offenses, and violation of protective orders.

Data are presented for the most recent 10 years.

New York State annually publishes a Domestic Homicide Report analyzing homicides involving family members and intimate partners. Those reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.

Gun Violence

New York State provides funding, training and technical support to 28 police agencies and their law enforcement partners in 21 counties through the Gun Involved Violence Elimination (GIVE) initiative, which aims to reduce shootings, shooting deaths, and firearm-related violent crimes.

GIVE agencies are required to report shooting incidents involving injuries, the number of individuals shot, and the number of individuals killed by gun violence to DCJS. Those agencies are divided into two tiers:

  • Tier I agencies focus on reducing the number of shootings and shooting fatalities: Albany, Buffalo, Hempstead, Mount Vernon, Nassau County, Newburgh, Niagara Falls, Poughkeepsie, Rochester, Schenectady, Suffolk County, Syracuse, Troy, Utica, and Yonkers.
  • Tier II agencies focus on reducing firearm-related violent crimes (murder, rape, robbery, aggravated assault): Amherst, Auburn, Binghamton, Cheektowaga, Elmira, Greece, Ithaca, Jamestown, Kingston, Lackawanna, Middletown, Spring Valley, and Watertown.

Shooting Incidents, Shooting Victims, and Shooting Homicides

Agency level reported crime data and violent crime by firearm data are available in dashboard format on the Index Crime tab of the Statistics Page.

Adult Criminal Justice System

This section provides data detailing processing of cases involving individuals who are 18 and older.

Adult Arrests

Police departments report arrests to DCJS that require fingerprints, the criteria for which is defined in state law. Arrests are reported to the state by the police department that made the arrest.

Ten years of data detailing misdemeanor and felony arrests involving adults, who are individuals 18 and older. Felony arrests are categorized as follows: drug, violent, DWI, and other. Misdemeanor arrests are categorized as follows: drug, property, DWI, and other.

Note: The age reported is the age when the crime is alleged to have occurred.

Historical adult arrest data back to 1990 are available through the Open Data Portal.

Pretrial Release

State law requires the Division of Criminal Justice Services (DCJS) and the Office of Court Administration (OCA) to provide information to the public that details pretrial release decisions made by judges upon arraignment, including release on recognizance, bail, or non-monetary conditions, as well as remand to custody.

DCJS and OCA coordinated and compiled one comprehensive data file to meet the statutory reporting obligations because neither agency maintains all the data necessary to fulfill the requirements under the bail reform law. Data within the file include the sex, race, and ethnicity of the individual arrested; the most serious arrest charge; the number and type of charges the individual has faced previously; and if the individual failed to appear in court or was re-arrested while the case was pending, among other data. The information provided does not identify the individuals charged.

This file contains data from Jan. 1, 2020, through June 30, 2023, as reported by New York City criminal courts (excluding community courts), 61 city and two district courts outside of New York City, and certain Superior Courts, which started reporting data in 2021.

DCJS and OCA also coordinated and compiled a Supplemental Pretrial Release Data File, which details cases arraigned in 2019, prior to the bail law changes, and cases arraigned in 2020, 2021 and 2022.

OCA publishes a Discovery Reform: Court Activity Dashboard to satisfy Discovery Law reporting requirements in State Judiciary Law Section 216(5). DCJS Discovery Reform Reports for 2021 and 2022 are posted on the Annual Reports and Publications page.

Dispositions of Adult Arrests

Five years of data detailing the court dispositions (outcomes) of misdemeanor and felony arrests of individuals 18 and older. Arrests are reported by the police agency that made the arrest and disposition information is provided by the state Office of Court Administration.

Comparison of Population to Arrests and Prison Sentences by Race/Ethnicity

Data comparing arrests and sentences to prison by race/ethnicity as compared to the race/ethnicity of the total population in New York State, New York City, Non-New York City, and each county. These data are presented to provide context to the race/ethnicity of adults involved in the criminal justice system.

Convictions to Cannabis Offenses

State law requires DCJS to annually publish data about convictions to cannabis offenses (state Penal Law Section 222).

Sealing of Criminal Convictions

State law allows individuals who have remained crime-free for 10 years to request that certain New York State convictions be sealed. These data show the number of individuals who successfully petitioned the courts to seal a case(s), by the county in which the seal was granted.

Note: The county where the seal was granted may be different than the county in which an individual lived at the time of the conviction or the county where the individual presently resides.

Eligible individuals may petition the court to seal up to two misdemeanor convictions; one misdemeanor and one felony conviction; or one felony conviction. This process took effect Oct. 7, 2017.

Adults Required to Register as Sex Offenders

State law requires adults convicted of certain crimes to register as sex offenders. Registration occurs upon an individual’s release to the community. The number of adults required to register are shown by risk level, county of residence and other categories. These data are updated monthly.

Adults Required to Register by Risk Level (2/2/2024)

State law sets three risk levels, which are determined by a judge after a court hearing: Level 1 (low risk of repeat offense), Level 2 (moderate risk of repeat offense) and Level 3 (high risk of repeat offense). A designation of P (pending) means that a judge has not yet determined risk level. Any questions about these data should be directed to pressinfo@dcjs.ny.gov.

Adults Under Probation Supervision

A sentence to probation allows individuals convicted of crimes to remain in the community under conditions mandated by the court and monitored by probation departments in 57 counties and New York City. Judges also may impose a split sentence, which is a term of local jail incarceration followed by probation supervision. New York State regulates and funds Probation Departments, however, supervision of individuals is a local responsibility.

Adults Under Probation Supervision by County (6/2023).

Adults under supervision are shown annually for the past five years and by conviction type, sex, and race/ethnicity for the most current year. See data notes for more information.

New York State annually publishes a Probation Population Report analyzing data and trends, including crimes of conviction and outcomes. Those reports are available on the Publications / Reports page.

Recidivism

This recidivism report details arrest, conviction and incarceration data for adults sentenced to probation supervision for New York State, New York City, Non-New York City and each county. Data are shown for the last 10 years. See data notes for methodology used to calculate recidivism.

Jail Population

New York City and each county operate local jails, which house individuals sentenced to no more than one year of incarceration, those awaiting transfer to state prison to serve a sentence and those whose court cases are pending.

State prison population data are available from the State Department of Corrections and Community Supervision.

Data detailing average daily population by facility for the most recent 12 months are updated monthly.

Data detailing average of all daily populations reported for each year by facility for the most recent 10 years are updated annually.

Historical jail population data back to 1997 are available through the Open Data Portal.

Youth Justice System

This section provides data detailing processing of cases involving individuals who are 7 through 17 years old. This youth justice system flow chart illustrates key points in case processing. The state Office of Children and Family Services updates youth detention data and youth placement data each quarter and also produces an annual Youth in Care Report.

Youth Population Data

Statewide, regional and county population data by sex and race/ethnicity for youth ranging in age from 7 to 17. These data are presented to provide context to the race/ethnicity, sex and age of youth involved in the youth justice system.

Arrests/Criminal Activity

Five years of data detailing police contact with individuals younger than 18, either formal arrests or police contact with youth where there is probable cause that a crime was committed but the agency did not file formal charges.

Arrests and criminal activity are shown by the following categories as defined by the FBI:

Index (murder, robbery, forcible rape, aggravated assault, burglary, larceny, and motor vehicle theft) and Non-Index (all other offenses, including but not limited to arson, weapons possession, criminal mischief and simple assault).

Note: The New York City Police Department does not report these data.

Youth Part of Criminal Court Processing

Youth Part of Criminal Court processes felony arrests involving 16- or 17-year-olds, defined in state law as adolescent offenders, and arrests involving 13-, 14- and 15-year-olds facing certain serious felony crimes, defined in state law as juvenile offenders.

These cases may remain in Youth Part or be transferred to, also referred to as removed to, Probation and/or Family Court.

Youth Probation

Juvenile Delinquent Probation Intakes

Probation departments are responsible for screening juvenile delinquency (JD) arrests involving youth who are 7 through 17 to determine whether a petition should be filed in Family Court, or whether the case can be diverted. These arrests include 16- and 17-year-olds who are charged with felonies and have their cases removed from the Youth Part of Criminal Court to Probation Intake.

These data are presented by region and county:

Probation Supervision

Probation departments may supervise youth who were younger than 18 at the time of offense after their cases are disposed in Family Court or the Youth Part of Criminal Court.

These data are presented by region and county:

Family Court Delinquency Petition Processing

Family Courts handle cases involving youth who are 7 through 17 and have a juvenile delinquency petition filed after a referral from a county attorney’s office; this includes cases involving 16- and 17-year-olds charged with felonies who were removed from Youth Part of Criminal Court to Family Court.

These data are presented by region and county:

Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Youth Justice System

This dashboard contains data on juvenile delinquency (JD) cases in New York State by race/ethnicity and county. The number and racial/ethnic breakdown of cases are shown for the following case processing points in the juvenile justice system: probation intakes opened, probation intakes referred immediately to the presentment agency, probation intakes adjusted, petitions filed in Family Court, petitions resulting in a JD finding, petitions resulting in no JD finding, and probation supervision cases opened. The JD classification in the youth justice system refers to the following types of cases:

  • Youth 12- to 15-years-old charged with a misdemeanor or felony offense;
  • Youth 16- to 17-years-old charged with a misdemeanor; or
  • Youth 16- to 17-years-old charged with a felony (“Adolescent Offender”) whose cases are removed from the Youth Part of Criminal Court to Probation or Family Court.

Data represent the count and percent of cases by race/ethnicity at each case processing point in the juvenile justice system. Data represent cases at each point, not unique individuals. Data do not follow individual youth through the juvenile justice system.

For race/ethnicity, five categories are displayed: White, Black, Hispanic, Other Race/Ethnicity, and Not Reported. All cases involving youth of Hispanic ethnicity are reported in the Hispanic category, regardless of race. The Other Race/Ethnicity category includes cases of youth who are Asian/Pacific Islander, American Indian/Alaskan Native, or Other Race. Not Reported reflects cases that are missing data on race/ethnicity.

More information about the juvenile justice system, including the probation intake process, juvenile delinquency petitions, and youth probation supervision can be found at the following links: probation intakes, petitions, probation supervision.

Population data are sourced from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Division of Vital Statistics, National Center for Health Statistics. Population data for 2021 and 2022 utilize 2020 population statistics.

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Data Last Updated: July 2023

Data Provided by: DCJS

Youth Justice System Trends

This section presents Trendsmber of juvenile delinquency cases handled by probation departments and Family Courts for the most recent five-year period. Data are shown for the following case processing points: detention admissions, probation intake and adjustment, initial petitions filed in Family Court, probation supervision cases opened, and cases under probation supervision at the end of each year. These data are presented by county and region:

Historical Juvenile Justice Data

This section presents juvenile justice data compiled prior to full implementation of the state law that raised the age of criminal responsibility to 18 over a two-year period. Among other changes implemented as a result of the law:

  • 16- and 17-year-olds are no longer fingerprinted when arrested for misdemeanor crimes. As a result, these arrests are no longer reported by police agencies to the state (effective Oct. 1, 2018, for 16-year-olds and Oct. 1, 2019, for 17-year-olds).
  • 16- and 17-year-olds arrested for felonies, known as adolescent offenders, are initially processed in the Youth Part of Criminal Court. Cases either remain in the Youth Part or are transferred to Probation Departments and/or Family Courts.

Arrests

Ten years of misdemeanor and felony arrest counts for 16- and 17-year-olds and juvenile offenders, who are 13-, 14- and 15-year-olds charged with serious, violent felonies for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county:

Court Dispositions of Arrests involving 16- and 17-Year-Olds

Five years of criminal court dispositions of misdemeanor and felony arrests for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county.

Youth Part of Criminal Court Processing

Data for the 24-month implementation period of the Raise the Age law: Oct. 1, 2018 through Sept. 30, 2020. These data were compiled quarterly to monitor activity in the Youth Part of Criminal Court, newly created by the law.

Adolescent Offender (AO) and Juvenile Offender (JO) Arrests and Youth Part Processing

County Juvenile Justice Profiles

As New York State explored reforms to its juvenile justice system prior to the enactment of the Raise the Age law, staff from the Division of Criminal Justice Services partnered with local and state agencies to compile and analyze juvenile justice data.  This allowed policy makers and stakeholders to use the data to inform policy development.

These profiles detail juvenile justice case processing for New York State, New York City, non-New York City and each county for the five-year period prior to Raise the Age implementation.

County/Regional Profiles are no longer compiled, as data collection, analysis and publication have been modified and updated to reflect the current structure of the state’s youth justice system.

Law Enforcement

Law Enforcement Personnel

The number of sworn and civilian employees on each police agency's payroll, and those employees by sex, race and ethnicity, annually as of Oct. 31. These data are reported by each agency and excludes employees working in local correctional facilities.

Historical police personnel data dating back to 2007 are available through the Open Data Portal.

Use of Force

State law requires police departments and sheriffs' offices to report incidents involving use of force to the state, which must make incident-level information by agency available to the public.

Note: Use of Force data from July 1, 2019, through Oct. 31, 2020, is posted on the Publications / Reports page under Archive. Due to a change in the state's data collection system, that data should not be compared to the current data.

Arrest-Related Deaths

State law requires police departments and sheriffs' offices to report incidents involving arrest-related deaths to the state, which must make incident-level information by agency available to the public.